Motivation and Morale


      Motivation is defined as a force within an individual that influences behavior.

      Intrinsic motivation is inherent and seems to be stimulated by a need to feel competent and self-determined.

      Extrinsic motivation is external or environmental such as reward and/or punishment.

Motivational Theory

      The knowledge that all behavior is goal driven is the basis behind motivational theory. The task of management is to satisfy those factors that stimulate job satisfaction in order to create a climate of productivity and a shared sense of purpose; a climate of team work and cohesiveness.

Motivational Theory

      Monistic Theory,derived from Taylor and the principles of scientific management, states that motivation is dependent on monetary rewards such as salary, merit increases, and bonuses. Money equals motivation.

Motivational Theory

      Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs initiated the behavioral science era of management. He outlined a hierarchical structure for human needs classified into five categories: physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, and self-actualization.Several needs may operate at any given time. Once satisfied, a need will not motivate.

Motivational Theory

      Alderfer collapsed Maslow’s  five levels into three: existence, relatedness, and growth. He stated that in addition to a satisfaction-progression process, people also redirect energy toward lower level needs.

      McClelland also identified three needs: Achievement, affiliation, and power.

Motivational Theory

      Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory states that all work and motivation can be grouped into two categories or factors. Hygiene factors meet a person’s need to avoid discomfort and insecurity( salary, work environment, etc.). If these needs are not met, there will be job dissatisfaction.

Motivational Theory

      Herzberg calls the second set of factors motivators. These factors meet needs to grow professionally and psychologically( achievement, responsibility, the work itself). When these needs are met, the person is both motivated and satisfied.

Motivational Theory

      Argyris’s Psychological Energy theory states that people work harder to meet their own needs than those of the organization. Job dissatisfaction will occur if the needs are very different.

      Vroom’s Expectancy theory states that motivation is dependent upon desire for something and the expectation that it is achievable.

Motivational Theory

      Skinner’s Operant Conditioning states that motivation is increased by accentuating desired behavior through positive reinforcement.

      Adam’s Equity theory states that when people perceive inequity in the workplace they will be motivated to reduce the tension created by the inequity.

Motivational Theory

      McGregor’s Theory X

      People are lazy

      They dislike work

      Work only for money

       Dislike responsibility

      Managers who follow this are autocratic.

      McGregor’s Theory Y

      People are self-directed

      Enjoy work

      Seek responsibility

      Managers with this philosophy are democratic.

Motivational Theory

      Likert’s Participative Management Theory states that effective performance depends on sensitivity, communication, and supportive relationships.

      Ouchi’s Theory Z states that Japanese management, with its focus on staff, skills, superordinate goals, and style, leads to effective performance.

Motivational Theory: Historical Development

      Traditional management is based on Theory X. The primary physiological and safety needs are addressed and monistic theory is used for reinforcement. Newer management is based on Theory Y.Participation is a major factor, supported by decentralization. Personnel contribute to decisions, goals, and plans.


      From an individual perspective, morale is related to productivity, motivation, confidence and discipline.

      From an organizational perspective, morale is the attitudes of workers toward the quality of their work lives.


      Effective leadership involves constantly monitoring the work environment for morale and satisfaction. The leader helps others gain enthusiasm, take risks, and work towards a high focused energy.

Job Satisfaction

      Job satisfaction is a multidimensional concept subject to individual differences.Some sources of satisfaction have been identified as achievement, recognition, challenging work, autonomy,authority, and a pleasant work environment. Dissatisfaction leads to absenteeism, turnover, and decreased productivity.